|You are working for an insecure and insensitive individual who thinks that part of managing is bullying. Obviously, he is wrong in every sense of the word.|
You have been rather kind in your comments to him, and he may sense that your mild words are a sign of weakness. Telling him that you do not appreciate the insults is actually telling him what he wants to hear, namely that his bullying is upsetting you. He needs to be dealt with more forcefully.
The next time he makes an insulting comment, address it on the spot and tell him that you do not like his remarks, they are hurting you and interfering with your ability to do your work, and you want them to stop right now so that you will not have to take any additional action on this matter.
If he does not get this verbal two-by-four, you should approach his manager. Growing numbers of companies are taking swift corrective action in these types of situations, as there are compelling humanistic and monetary reasons for doing so.